Satoru Iwata (1959 – 2015)

Satoru Iwata - 1959-2015

With such shock and sadness, the world lost a true gaming icon. Satoru Iwata of the worldwide gaming company, Nintendo, sadly passed away on Saturday 11th July 2015 at the age of 55 from cancer, following complications from a bile duct growth.

Today, Nintendo issued an official statement, which documents the news of Satoru Iwata’s passing, which can be viewed by clicking here.

To me, this is a massive shock, because I have only just found the news of Satoru Iwata’s death today, and not only has his death been a massive shock to me, but his death has also been a massive shock to the gaming world.

To pay tribute to Satoru Iwata, I will now take a look back on his life as it unfolded, and the highlights of his career up until his death.

Satoru Iwata (6th December 1959 – 11th July 2015)

Satoru Iwata was a Japanese businessman and also a game programmer who had served as the fourth President & Chief Executive Office (CEO) of Nintendo. He had worked as a programmer at the HAL Laboratory earlier on in his career, as this would help him to go on to develop the smash-hit games, such as the Super Smash Bros.’ series, the Kirby series and the Pokémon series, before joining Nintendo in 2000.

Satoru Iwata had also succeeded Hiroshi Yamauchi as the company’s President in May 2002, and he had directed the company to pursue the development of the Nintendo DS and Nintendo Wii consoles in 2006, which would help the company to become financially successful among many of the other game console manufacturers. He had served as the company’s President until his death on Saturday 11th July 2015.

Satoru Iwata’s Early Life

Satoru Iwata was born on the 6th December 1959 and was raised in Sapporo, in Japan; his father was a municipal mayor. He had expressed his interest in the creation of video games earlier on, and had began to produce electronic games at his home during his high school years. The several simple number games that Iwata had produced had made use of an electronic calculator that he had shared with his schoolmates.

Following on from high school, Satoru Iwata was admitted to the Tokyo Institute of Technology, where he would major in computer science. While he was attending the school, he did do a lot of freelance work as a programmer for HAL Laboratory, Inc., a game developer that had often collaborated quite closely with the international gaming company, Nintendo.

Satoru Iwata’s Career

HAL Laboratory

After he had graduated from university, Satoru Iwata had joined the HAL Laboratory company in a full-time capacity. Here, he had become the company’s co-ordinator for software production in 1983. Some of the video games that he worked on were Balloon Fight, EarthBound and the Kirby games. With the company itself being on the verge of bankruptcy, Satoru Iwata was promoted to be the President of HAL Laboratory in 1993, and in turn, he had helped to turn the company around and also stabilise its finances.

Satoru Iwata had assisted in the founding of Creatures Inc., which was established in 1995 by Tsunekazu Ishihara. Although he was not part of Nintendo at that time, Iwata had assisted in the development of Pokémon Gold & Silver, which were both released for the Game Boy Color in November 1999. Simultaneously, Satoru Iwata had aided in the programming of the Pokémon Stadium for the Nintendo 64 by reading the original coding that was found in both Pokémon Red & Green, and reworking it for the new game. Satoru Iwata had also created a set of compression tools that were utilised in the Gold & Silver Versions of the Pokémon series.

Satoru Iwata & Nintendo

In 2000, Satoru Iwata had taken the position at Nintendo as the head of its corporate planning division. When Hiroshi Yamauchi, the company’s president since 1949, had retired on the 31st May 2002, Satoru Iwata had succeeded as Nintendo’s fourth President with Yamauchi’s blessing, and Yamauchi would then advise Iwata over the course of the next few years. Satoru Iwata was the first Nintendo President who was unrelated to the Yamauchi family through blood or marriage. Iwata had also continued to help out at HAL Laboratory as a consultant.

At the time of Satoru Iwata’s promotion, Nintendo wasn’t performing as well as the other console makers, with its latest release, the Nintendo GameCube performing poorly compared to competitors. Iwata had stated back in 2006 that he felt that the gaming industry was becoming too exclusive, and that he wanted to develop hardware and games that would be appealing to all players.

Under his charge at Nintendo, Satoru Iwata had helped to lead a revitalisation of their handheld system, which would help them to transition from the Game Boy console series to the Nintendo DS Series, with a unique form factor that would allow for more novel games to be played on it. He had also pushed on the development of the Nintendo Wii platform, which had introduced the use of motion control-based video games.

Both units had proved to be highly successful to the company alone, with the release of the Nintendo Wii in 2006 helping to nearly double the stock price of Nintendo. Satoru Iwata’s former experience as a programmer, which was a rarity for technology CEOs, was said to have helped to contribute towards his leadership of the company. Due to his success, Barron’s had included Iwata on their list of the 30 top CEOs worldwide from 2007 to 2009.

He had commented on the Nintendo games in his section of Nintendo’s Wii website, Iwata Asks. In 2011, Satoru Iwata had helped to institute “Nintendo Direct”, which is a series of online press conferences that are open to all that had revealed upcoming Nintendo games and products that were outside of the typical industry channels, and were often done in a quirky, humorous manner, such as a mock battle between him and the Nintendo of America President, Reggie Fils-Aimé.

In the June of 2013, Satoru Iwata had decided to take the role of Nintendo of America’s CEO; as one of his first changes as CEO, Iwata had decided that they would not hold large press conferences at E3 (Electronic Entertainment Expo), and instead have several smaller events, each that would be aimed at a certain demographic. This year, Iwata had put part of Nintendo’s focus on the growing mobile game market, and in turn, he created a partnership with the mobile provider, DeNA, to publish titles, as the traditional hardware console sales had began to falter.

As Iwata had stated, he would take half of his salary to help Nintendo’s poor finances and to better compete against the big technology companies, Microsoft Corporation and Sony Computer Entertainment.

While he was at Nintendo, Satoru Iwata had worked on The Legend of Zelda series, the Mario series and the Animal Crossing gaming series. He had also played as a cameo in Nintendo’s Wii game, WarioWare: Smooth Moves (also a part of the Nintendo Selects range, created by Nintendo), where he is referred to as: “Shop Manager Iwata”.

In his Keynote Speech at the Game Developers Conference (GDC) in 2005, Satoru Iwata had stated in his speech:

“On my business card, I am a corporate president. In my mind, I am a game developer. But in my heart, I am a gamer.” – Satoru Iwata.

Satoru Iwata’s Illness & Death

In 2014, Nintendo had announced that Satoru Iwata would not be present at E3 2014 due to medical-related reasons. It was later revealed that he was undergoing surgery for a tumour in his bile duct. Yesterday, Nintendo had announced that Satoru Iwata had died the previous day at the age of 55 due to complications with this tumour. Today, Nintendo had issued the statement that had officially announced his death on Saturday 11th July 2015. He was survived by his wife, Kayoko. Funeral services are planned to be held on the 17th July 2015.

The flags at Nintendo’s headquarters were lowered at half-mast, and members across the gaming industry and fans alike had expressed their sadness on social media over Satoru Iwata’s passing and gratitude for his accomplishments. Shuhei Yoshida, the President of SCE Worldwide Studios (Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios), stated that: “He has given a great contribution to the development of the gaming industry. I will pray for Iwata’s soul.” The composer and director, Junichi Masuda, who was mostly known for his work with the Pokémon games, tweeted that: “He was a man who understood Pokémon, and a great leader. When I visited the other day, he was well. I will pray for his soul from the bottom of my heart.”

My thoughts go out to Satoru Iwata and his family at such a difficult time. We will miss you dearly Satoru Iwata, but you will never be forgotten for the wonderful and happy legacy you have left behind.

“Thanks to you, you have shaped the world of gaming with such positivity, and you have changed our lives for the better, in so many ways. You’ve inspired us to keep pushing and to keep going in life. Thank you. We will miss you Satoru Iwata, but you will never be forgotten for the wonderful legacy you’ve left behind. We will always remember you in our hearts forever.” – Alex Smithson

If you want to pay tribute to Satoru Iwata, please feel free to leave your tributes below in the comments.

Alex Smithson

Note: If there are any forms of slander made in the comments that have been written, they will be deleted. Please be respectful and pay tribute to Nintendo’s fourth President, Satoru Iwata. No Slander Allowed.

A Naughty Dog Classic | Crash Bandicoot: Warped

Crash Bandicoot Warped

Spinning back the clock to 1998, Crash Bandicoot: Warped was the 3rd, most popular installment in the series of Crash Bandicoot. Crash Bandicoot: Warped continues from where Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back, left off.

In this installment, Crash Bandicoot: Warped is full of adventurous landscapes, each bringing along with them many different obstacles, some obstacles of which you can and cannot break, which requires you to overcome those obstacles through an alternative method.

As each level of the game progresses, you’ll begin to notice that each level becomes more challenging and also a lot harder to complete. Much of the levels contain secret pathways, which in effect, are useful as these secret pathways can allow you to collect any extra gems, and even the special gems to unlock further pathways to another part of that level.

The Crash Bandicoot series had proved to be a popular gaming series towards the end of the 1990s, as the Spyro the Dragon series had proved the same. Both of these gaming franchises, despite being released by two different developers, had proved that they had the staying power for more games to come, not like some of the games that are made today, because some of the games that are created today leave little to the imagination, especially for those younger than the age that is given on the game’s PEGI (Pan-European Game Information) rating.

Referring back to Crash Bandicoot: Warped, this game, to me, is such a fantastically crafted game where what would take a few minutes turns into hours, and before you know it, it could take days to complete, depending on how competitive you are.

I must admit, the levels I do find difficult to complete myself are the N.Gin Boss Level, and the flying level in the 5th world hard to complete. Those two levels are more of the pain-in-your-backside levels that look easy to start with, but then, the difficulty of the levels are turned all the way up to the hard setting.

There is a lot of potential for the Crash Bandicoot series to be remastered, though that will depend on whether a remaster ever occurs. It would be nice if the series was remastered and revived, because it would bring back a lot more value, not just for the original versions of the Crash series, but also for the potential remastering of the Crash Bandicoot series altogether.

Overall, I think this game is perfect, and this game is one of the top-of-the-class games that you just can’t miss. Play it, you won’t be disappointed. It’s a childhood classic to me, and I bet that once you start playing this game, along with the other games in the Crash Bandicoot series, you won’t be disappointed, it’s that good :-).

My overall rating on this game: 10/10.

Alex Smithson

My Journey Through a Lens: Out Now!!!

My Journey Through a Lens - Out Now!!!

After just 9 months of hard work, effort and designing, My Journey Through a Lens is finally available, starting from today. With this book being over 400+ pages long, this book is indeed the largest book I have ever made, which follows up from my previous book: “A Year in Photography”, which was released last September.

As this book has pieced together bit-by-bit like a puzzle for the past 9 months, I have talked about certain famous icons, such as Henry VIII, Queen Victoria, Guy Fawkes, Mary | Queen of Scots, Winston Churchill and John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and as well as that, I have also talked about the former president, Nelson Mandela.

In this book, I have also talked about our Croydon lad, Ben Haenow, who was crowned the winner of the X Factor 2014, and not only that, but I have also talked about the Queen of Pop, Madonna, who has been given 3 special mentions in terms of her recently released album, Rebel Heart (released on Monday 9th March 2015), along with her two recently released videos that followed on from her “Living for Love” video, Ghosttown and Bitch I’m Madonna.

There is so much in this book that I have offered, and I feel absolutely glad to have worked hard on this book, as it has given me the strength to continue writing not just for Mother Nature, but also the strength to write a 4th. Now that this book is finally out in the open, I will begin working on Book #4 soon, as I will be making sure to get this third book printed for my own use via the regular printing service, DoxDirect.

It was a lot of effort to work on this book, despite my college studies over the past year, which I have since finished and passed as well, but the most important thing is that I have taken all of the time that I need to design this book, and also format the layout of the pages, so that everything I’ve talked about has pieced together nicely.

I have also dedicated this book to a small number of people, which you’ll see on the back cover of the book, as I have dedicated this book to Ajay Mody, who sadly passed away on the 10th August 2014 after a short illness. I have also dedicated this book to the former Loose Women panellist, Lynda Bellingham, who had also sadly passed away on the 19th October 2014 from Colon Cancer. I have officially dedicated this book to the cricket player, Phillip Hughes, who had sadly passed away on the 27th November 2014, after a sudden accident.

Also, in light of this book, I have dedicated this book to a full-time working regular blogger, and that is Vijay Shah of the Half-Eaten Mind. This book is dedicated to Vijay, as he has guided me “along the way since I began my blogging journey, and is currently updating the Half-Eaten Mind with all new information”. He is a regular blogger who likes to study and keep people up-to-date on the things that he feels may interest everyone else, for example, Vijay recently studied Virtual Vexillology, which was split over 6 articles. If you’re wondering what vexillology is, vexillology is the studying of flags. If you want to at any time, please feel free to head to Vijay’s blog/website: “Half-Eaten Mind: News & Views from a Partially Digested Brain.

To round the book off on a high note, I have decided to celebrate and dedicate this book to our Croydon lad, Ben Haenow, who was crowned the winner of the X Factor 2014, with his debut single: “Something I Need (Originally released by OneRepublic) [Released by Ben in December]” going straight to Number 1. We are absolutely proud of you Ben Haenow!!! Proud to be a Croydonian!!! We will and shall always love you Ben!!!!!!!!!

If you want to download this book now, it can be found in the “Free Books” section on this website.

Enjoy :-)!!!!!!!!!

Alex Smithson

My Journey Through a Lens: Out Independence Day!!!

My Journey Through a Lens - Out 4th July!!!

After 9 months of working on Book #3, I am absolutely pleased to tell you that: “My Journey Through a Lens” will officially be out tomorrow at 6:00 PM. The news of this book release has finally come, as I have just finished up work on the book, and I am now preparing it so that it is officially ready for release tomorrow evening.

Containing over 400+ pages, this book is indeed my largest book to date. This book was originally going to be released towards the end of May, but due to the fact that I had my college studies and revision to worry about, I had to hold off the release to allow myself a lot more time to finish up the book and also finalise it, so that it would give me more time to work on it.

As I mentioned previously in the previously crafted articles surrounding this book, I have officially included 6 case studies, all of them of which focus on historical icons from the 1500s up to now, and as well as this, I have also included further interests that I am fond of, such as music and photography, as I have talked about our Croydon lad, Ben Haenow (Winner of the X Factor 2014) and also the Queen of Pop, Madonna.

In terms of the book, some of the book focuses mainly around the photographical work that I have published on Mother Nature, and not only that, but most of the book itself also focuses around my own interests, as well as Croydon College.

The front and back covers of the book, which were originally a tad fuzzy in terms of the method I used to use have since been resolved, as I have enlarged the book covers and the text into a much higher quality, which means that when you zoom in, it will be almost completely fuzz-free.

When you get to the end of the book, you can expect to see ten pages of photographs, and then the last page or few will focus on some quotes, some or most of which I have created by myself, but also some by other people, especially of those that are famous.

I am absolutely thrilled to have got to the end of this book, and I can’t wait to release it tomorrow. Once the book becomes available, I will be changing out the download icons in the Free Books section to the cover images of those books that were designed. Don’t worry, these books are always going to be free, including any other future books that I will create, and as always, every book I make will be made available for download via Dropbox.

Until then, I can’t wait to release the book, and please make sure to keep an eye on Mother Nature tomorrow, when the book gets released at 6:00 PM :-).

Alex Smithson

My First Year at Croydon College: A Perfect Success!!!!!!!!!

My First Year at Croydon College - A Perfect Success!!!!!!!!!

After a year of hard work, studying and revision, I am absolutely pleased to tell you all that I have officially, as of today, passed my UAL Level 2 Art & Design Course with a high Merit grade.

This news comes in light of the 8 units that I have completed and passed, with a Distinction on my research, which resulted in me getting that high merit grade for the whole course overall. I am also pleased to tell you that I received two certificates from Croydon College today, one of which celebrates the outstanding achievement I’ve made in terms of my exemplary attendance, while the other celebrates my outstanding achievement I’ve made in terms of excellent achievement.

I had never thought that I would come this far in just one year, literally in the space of one year since I left school for good, I have suddenly exceeded my expectations, even without realising it. I feel more than overjoyed to have come so far in just the short space of one year alone.

Over the past 10 months, I have been making sure to keep on top of the work that I’ve been given by my course lecturers, and as well as that, I have been able to not only manage my time effectively, but I have also been able to balance the work, revision, and also the things I love to do, such as writing and publishing articles on Mother Nature, that’s including writing my own books.

Since Monday 8th September 2014, I have gone from being above average in confidence to being fully confident in my studies, as I have been able to prioritise more of my time on my college studies and everything else, as well as the ability to do other things that I initially didn’t feel comfortable with.

In the space of those 10 months, I have been making sure to keep on top of the work, though I was very lucky to have kept on top of it as quick as I did, because within the first few weeks of the course, I ended up accidentally falling behind in my studies, which has since been resolved as I had gone in on days that I was initially supposed to be off.

I must admit though, although I initially didn’t like the thought of going to college on the days that I wasn’t scheduled in for, I am absolutely glad that I did, as this has not only benefitted me in the long run, but it has also opened a lot of doors to so many opportunities, opportunities of which I didn’t think I would actually get, and I feel absolutely thankful to have studied and completed my first year at Croydon College.

Croydon College alone has to be one of the best colleges around that I have ever been to, and not only that, but Croydon College alone is also completely diverse and equal, as you get treated with the best respect you could possibly think. Everyone I know at this college are so friendly, I instantly click with them, and I have noticed that quite a lot since I started at the college on the 8th September 2014.

If you want me to be politely honest, I absolutely love this college, even though it is just my first year, I have enjoyed every single day, as I have been able to keep my friends company, I’ve been able to share laughs with everyone down the line, and I want that to continue for the last few years of secondary education that I still have left.

On the 15th April 2015, as you may recall, I went to the Victoria & Albert Museum (a.k.a. the V&A), as I went there to take a lot of photos that would not just record my visit to that museum, but it would also mean that I would record a lot of the works that were designed by a huge, huge amount of artists. There was one notable artist whose work I did take a photo of, and that was Cornelia Parker‘s “Breathless” masterpiece.

Cornelia Parker’s “Breathless” work was done in a way where you can immediately see an entirely different form of destruction, as she had taken bits of silver, especially those that may have consisted of musical instruments, and she had flattened them with a steam roller. Much of Cornelia Parker’s works can be found in loads of museums across the United Kingdom.

I must admit, when I took a few photos of the “Breathless” masterpiece by Cornelia Parker, I was extremely lucky, as I had just stepped away from the balcony where this piece was hanging up, when the left-hand side of the camera strap for my Nikon D3300 DSLR had come off, thankfully, my hands were still tightly clutched on the camera, and with some help from one of the students from my class, they had helped me to reattach the left-hand side of the strap back onto the Nikon D3300 DSLR.

Exactly one week after I started my UAL (University of Arts London) Level 2 Art & Design Course at Croydon College, I took a trip up to London to go to the National Portrait Gallery, where the two most famous pieces of Julian Opie’s works were displayed. Those two famous pieces that Julian Opie had created were of James Dyson, and Blur.

The music group, Blur, used Julian Opie’s artwork for their Greatest Hit’s album: “Blur: The Best Of”. Julian Opie is a visual artist, who is a part of the New British Sculpture movement. The painting that Julian Opie did of James Dyson, which was commissioned by the National Portrait Gallery in London, was titled: “James, Inventor.”

At a certain stage in the course, I took a trip up to the Tate Britain, which is also in London, and it featured a memorable, yet iconic piece by David Bomberg, titled: “The Mud Bath”, which was created in 1914, as an oil-on-canvas painting.

Back to the gist of the article, I have come a very long way since I started the course, and to finally finish it today, I can officially say that I am absolutely glad to have completed all of the work, my work for this course is finally done, and all of the hard work has officially paid off, thanks to my family, all of my friends, my two main role models and also some of my true friends, and also to every single one of you on WordPress, I couldn’t have done this all without you.

My determination is always going to stay at an all-time high, and I’m not preparing to slow down anytime soon, I will be making sure to keep as active as possible, and I will also make sure to keep myself in the loop, so that my time is prioritised in a much better way than how it originally was before, and that I can fit time in to write and publish articles for Mother Nature.

I have taken photos down the line since I’ve been at Croydon College, as I want to make sure that whatever photo I take, I can take that photo home with me to keep as an everlasting, long and happy memory.

A lot of happy memories have occurred and been created down the line, and I feel absolutely thankful and fortunate to know that I can do a lot of things now that I couldn’t do originally before. I have noticed down the line when it came to my college studies that my workloads were less busy, given that I had kept on top of the work, and what I feel is a massive relief and a massive weight off of my shoulders, is that I can finally keep what I’ve created, so that when it comes to the future, I can take what I’ve created with me and use it for many different uses in more ways than one in the years to come.

It’s hard to think, it was this time last year that I was relaxing, putting my feet up and working on my second book, and to turn the clock forward 365 days from 2014 to 2015, I am absolutely amazed as to what I have achieved. A lot of hard work and dedication has paid off, and I will be making sure to keep to that so that I can make sure I excel further in life.

You may have noticed about me this past year that I have been very fussy with what I’ve been designing and also creating, this is because I have been making sure to improve on my skills in design, and since I started the UAL Level 2 Art & Design Course at Croydon College, my own initial ideas and my own designs have gotten much, much better than how I had first thought.

With the work I’ve been producing, I have been making sure to fine-tune and make sure that what I create is perfect, whether it be work that I’ve been doing at Croydon College, or whether it be that I’ve been working on designing something for Mother Nature.

For those of you who are planning on going to Croydon College in the future years to come, I strongly recommend this college, this college is an all-round diverse and equal college that focuses on you being respected for who you are, and not only that, this college will do anything to make sure you can get to where you want to be in life.

For the last few years of my secondary education, I will be going on to doing the Level 3 Lens-Based Media Course, as I have my strong intentions to become a full-time photographer in the future. I love photography, and I also love writing and publishing articles on Mother Nature, and my further interest is that I love writing my own books.

Be yourself, and make sure that you get the best out of the life you have, and also, make sure your life is worth living, and not only that, make sure that you excel in life, as all of the hard work and dedication you make now will pay off in the end.

Dream big, think big, and also think of the best things that you want to do. Make sure to go for every opportunity that hits you, and if there is a fantastic opportunity that strikes, go for it!!!

Over the course of the Level 3 Lens-Based Media Course, I will be making sure to use my Nikon D3300 DSLR more frequently than before, as I will be making myself absolutely sure that I can get out a lot more than before and use my camera to take more photographs.

If needs be, I will be making sure to get out more over the course of the Level 3 Lens-Based Media Course, and not only that, but I will also be making sure to take dozens more photos over the course of 2016, and for many more years to come.

After such a fantastic year, I am finally glad to say that my first year of college is over. Although I will miss this year, I will still be able to look back on this year in the years to come, and I will make sure to do anything to make sure that my future is secured, and that my future is bright. Also, I will be making sure to keep on top of everything, and even if it means working harder than before, I will, if it means that I succeed and get further and further in life.

My final thoughts on my first year at Croydon College? I absolutely loved every second of it, and I have also loved all of the memories that have been created down the line. In the last few years of my secondary education, I will most definitely be making myself absolutely sure to create a lot more memories down the line, so that when my secondary education does officially come to an end, I will be able to look back on it all, including the memories that I have gathered, not just from Oasis Academy: Shirley Park, but also from Croydon College.

Overall, I am absolutely glad to have successfully completed my first year, and I am also absolutely glad to have passed my UAL Level 2 Art & Design Course. Roll on the Level 3 Lens-Based Media Course, and also, roll on the last few years of my secondary education. I can’t wait to create and keep a lot of happy memories over the next few years.

Alex Smithson

Welcome to July!!! An Energetic & Relaxing Month Awaits!!!

Welcome to July!!!

Welcome back to Mother Nature for a scorching hot July!!! This month is set to be an energetic & relaxing month ahead, despite the hot weather, and as well as that, I am delighted to tell you all that my book is finally reaching the completion stage, which is a fantastic sign, as I have been itching to get this book finished and ready for release, and I can admit, this book has to be one of the longest worked-on books that I’ve ever made, and it is indeed going to be one of the largest books I have ever created since I released my first and second book.

With a scorching, energetic and relaxing month ahead, I am absolutely delighted to know that I will be writing and publishing more articles over the course of this month. I have so much to offer this month, and I can’t wait to write and publish the articles that are coming soon.

As well as this, I will be hoping to get out more and take a lot of photographs that I can put on Mother Nature, as this will give me the chance to create more of my own material, and then publish it on this website for all of you to see.

As today has been the hottest day of the year on record, I must admit, even I find the heat a struggle, but I can hopefully live with it, as long as it doesn’t get too hot.

Aside from that, welcome to July on Mother Nature!!! An energetic and relaxing month awaits :-)!!!!!

Alex Smithson

Monthly Roundup: June 2015

30th June 2015 - Monthly Roundup

As I round June off on a high note, I will now take a look back on this month as it unfolded, and I will go through a quick roundup of the articles I have published on Mother Nature over the course of this month.

1.6.2015 – I welcomed you all back to Mother Nature for what would be a relaxing and peaceful month that would lie ahead. I also did a very short look back as I mentioned in this article that it would be one year ago this month that I had left school for good, given that I had also mentioned that I took a near-enough 5-month hiatus from February 2014 to June 2014, as I had my final exams to worry about.

6.6.2015 – Mother Nature marked a very important milestone on this day, as this day saw Mother Nature officially mark it’s 2nd birthday on WordPress. In the space of two years, I have gone on to publish two books online, one of which I have a physical copy of, and with my third book being close to being ready for its final release, I have felt absolutely proud to have come this far in the space of 2 years.

29.6.2015 – After a month-long wait and a lot of research, I was finally able to publish Case Study #6, which focused on the Former President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy. This Case Study is the first case study to have more than 10,000+ words containing dozens of research about a Former President.

30.6.2015 – Following just weeks after Apple held their Worldwide Developers Conference, iOS 8.4 was officially released to the masses. Along with this update brought the newly-announced music service, Apple Music. After 2 very long years, the United Kingdom, for the first time ever, gets access to iTunes Radio, including the new Radio Station, Beats 1 Radio (a.k.a. B1), and with this update came an entirely redesigned Music app, which was given not just a massive overhaul in design, but it also brought back with it the ability to play music videos in the Music application, but in Landscape Mode, which was a commonly used feature that was often seen quite frequently in iOS 6.

Also on this day, I published a Special Music Feature article on the Queen of Pop, Madonna’s high-octane music video: “Bitch I’m Madonna (feat. Nicki Minaj)”. This music video had featured a numerous amount of cameo appearances. These cameo appearances featured the likes of Katy Perry, Rita Ora, Chris Rock, Diplo, Kanye West, Beyoncé, Nicki Minaj, Alexander Wang, Rocco Ritchie & David. This video, as mentioned by some, if not a lot of people, would wipe Taylor Swift’s “Bad Blood” music video to the floor. This video was directed by Jonas Åkerlund, who had previously directed Madonna’s previous video, Ghosttown, taken from Madonna’s 13th Studio Album, Rebel Heart.

Thanks so much to all of you, that’s including my friends, my family, my two main role models and also all of you for such a fantastic, relaxing and peaceful month, and I’ll see you all in July. Also, before I conclude this monthly roundup on a high note, I am delighted to let you know I will be publishing more articles over the course of July and August, now that I have got a huge amount of time on my hands until September. Again, thanks so much to all of you for a fantastic, relaxing and peaceful month, and I’ll see you all in July!!!

Alex Smithson

[Note: Please make sure to keep a close eye out for my third book: “My Journey Through a Lens”, as it will be out very soon, and I will also be announcing the release date for this third book on Mother Nature :-).]

Bitch I’m Madonna (feat. Nicki Minaj) | Madonna | Special Music Feature

Bitch I'm Madonna - Special Music Feature - Final Featured Image

With her music video inching much closer to 30,000,000 views in just the space of two weeks, Madonna released her latest: “Bitch I’m Madonna (feat. Nicki Minaj)” music video to the masses. With her previous video only just recently clocking up to over 10,000,000+ views, with the first video from the Rebel Heart album clocking up to over 15,000,000+ views, Bitch I’m Madonna looks more than ready to set the bar for the next video that Madonna may release off of her 13th studio album, Rebel Heart.

Featuring cameo appearances from musicians, such as Rita Ora, Beyoncé, Miley Cyrus, Nicki Minaj, Kanye West & Katy Perry, with further actors and designers, such as Chris Rock and Alexander Wang, along with Madonna’s son, Rocco Ritchie and also David, that’s including the DJ, Diplo, Madonna’s latest video is set to wipe Taylor Swift’s “Bad Blood” video to the floor.

Bitch I’m Madonna (feat. Nicki Minaj) follows on from Madonna’s previous video, Ghosttown, which I had most recently talked about shortly after it was released. In “Bitch I’m Madonna”, there is a vibrant, yet interesting feel that brings the video together, as the video surrounds a party-based theme which is interesting, but also at the same time, elegant and modern to the present day.

The video from my view has a vibrant, yet bold approach that is appealing. Despite the fact the video is explicit, it has a lot of good value to it, because Madonna is making sure that no-one forgets who she is.

It’s amazing how a video like this has managed to clock up that many views in just the space of two weeks, and I can say I actually like it, it’s not too raunchy, it’s not too in your face, but it’s a high-octane pop record that gets Madonna’s point across, not just in her own way, but also in a way where you can understand her.

Madonna has made sure to be as repulsive as possible to her haters who have criticised her because of her age by releasing this video to the masses, to tell her haters that she doesn’t care what anyone thinks, she just wants to be accepted for who she is, no matter what age she is.

In this day and age, some musicians, if not a lot of musicians, are criticised, not so much on how they create their music, but also on the way they create their music. Madonna has been in the music business for over 30 years and she hasn’t taken her fans’ support for granted, yet those who criticise her take her for granted and act like they don’t give a damn about her.

One of the most inspiring thing’s Madonna has said, was when she made this quote:

This will be a revolution of inquiring further, of not worrying about winning other people’s approval, of not wishing you were someone else but perfectly content to be who you are. Someone unique, and rare, and fearless. I want to start a revolution of love.” – Madonna

Bitch I’m Madonna is a high-octane record that will get your taste buds flowing, and it is also a good record that has some sentimental value, given just how hard-working Madonna has been since she released Rebel Heart on Monday 9th March 2015.

In it’s full HD glory, here is the Official Music Video by Madonna: “Bitch I’m Madonna (feat. Nicki Minaj), which was directed by the director who did Madonna’s previous video, Ghosttown, Jonas Åkerlund.

If you enjoyed reading this Special Music Feature article, please make sure to give this article a like, and if you enjoyed the article and the music video, please feel free to leave your comments below this article.

Alex Smithson

© Madonna, Boy Toy Inc. & Live Nation 2015

© Any of the logos used, such as the Bitch I’m Madonna logo, the Rebel Heart logo, and the Madonna logo, including the image used behind the text are all courtesy of the record label, the ticket provider, the director and the artist itself. No Copyright Infringement Intended.

Fact: Jonas Åkerlund is best known for some of Madonna’s notable music videos, such as: “Ray of Light, Music, American Life, Jump & Celebration”. He has also worked with Madonna on putting together the tour footage for notable tours, such as: “I’m Going to Tell You a Secret”, “The Confessions Tour – Live from London (2006)” and “The Confessions Tour (2007)”.

iOS 8.4 Available Now. Go & Get it!!!!!

iOS 8.4 - Available Now.

Coming just weeks after iOS 9 was unveiled at Apple’s Worldwide Developers Conference (also known as WWDC), iOS 8.4 has just officially been released to the masses. With this update comes the official Apple Music service, as well as many of the other new features that are now available in this update. This update came two hours early ahead of the usual release time that Apple have normally stuck to since the first ever iPhone, iPod touch and iPad were released.

Also, the Music app has officially been redesigned and includes new features, such as Recently Added, which is seen most commonly in iTunes. As well as that, the music player has finally got a mini player as you would most commonly see in iTunes as well, and to top it all off, Up Next and other further features in the Music app have finally been added.

Upon opening the Music application, you’ll be greeted with the Apple Music logo and background, with two options that will come up, giving you the chance to choose whether you want to start your 3-month free trial with Apple Music today, or if you don’t, you get the chance to just go to your music library.

Here is the full changelog for iOS 8.4, covering the features that are new to the software, as well as the music application’s icon being given a redesign, ready for the iOS 9 update coming in the Autumn:

This update introduces Apple Music — a revolutionary music service, 24/7 global radio, and a way for fans to connect with their favourite artists — all included in the redesigned Music app. iOS 8.4 also includes improvements for iBooks and bug fixes.

Apple Music

  • Become an Apple Music member to play from millions of songs in the Apple Music catalogue, or keep them offline for playback later.
  • For You: Members can see playlist and album recommendations, hand-picked by music experts.
  • New: Members can find the latest, greatest new music available — direct from our editors.
  • Radio: Tune in to music, interviews and exclusive radio shows on Beats 1, play radio stations created by our editors, or create your own from any artist or song.
  • Connect: See shared thoughts, photos, music and videos from artists you follow, then join the conversation.
  • My Music: Play from all your iTunes purchases, songs from Apple Music, and playlists in one place.
  • Completely redesigned music player that includes new features such as Recently Added, Mini Player, Up Next and more.
  • iTunes Store: Still the best place to buy your favourite music — one song or album at a time
  • Availability and features may vary by country.

iBooks improvements and fixes

  • Browse, listen and download audiobooks from inside iBooks.
  • Enjoy the all-new Now Playing feature, designed specifically for audiobooks.
  • Books that are Made for iBooks now work on iPhone in addition to iPad.
  • Find and pre-order books in a series straight from your library.
  • Improves accessibility of widgets, glossary and navigation in books made with iBooks Author.
  • New default Chinese font.
  • New setting to turn off Auto-Night theme in your library.
  • Resolves an issue that may have prevented Hide Purchases from working.
  • Resolves an issue that may have prevented downloading books from iCloud.

Other improvements and bug fixes

  • Fixes an issue where receiving a specific series of Unicode characters causes device to reboot.
  • Fixes an issue that prevented GPS accessories from providing location data.
  • Fixes an issue where deleted Apple Watch apps could re-install.

For information on the security content of this update, please visit this website:

http://support.apple.com/en-gb/HT1222

After an extremely long wait, iTunes Radio has officially arrived in the United Kingdom, and can now be found next to the playlist icon. Also, Beats 1 and many other various radio stations are now available within the Music app. Apple Music Connect is also a welcome of open arms, meaning that after some time, you can now follow your favourite musicians, either through tapping on the “Follow” button, or by tapping on the “Automatically Follow Artists” button when you add the music from your iTunes Library to your iPhone, iPod touch or iPad device.

At last, after a long wait, landscape mode for music videos has officially returned to the Music app, a commonly used feature that was in iOS 6.

The Music application has had a major design overhaul and has also been more of a focus for Apple, considering that the Apple Music service has just officially been launched today.

Below are the screenshots that show iOS 8.4, and the redesigned Music application all in action (including iTunes Radio UK & Beats 1 Radio).

I have checked in the Music app, and it’s a luck of the draw, if you feel that you don’t want to subscribe to Apple Music, there is an option to say no, as Apple have put an option below the “Start 3 Month Free Trial” button, saying “Go to My Music”. This is a wise move from Apple, as this means that you don’t have to worry about it, you can still use the Music app for free, and making purchases in the iTunes Store and the App Store, including the desktop version of the iTunes Store mean that you can still use iTunes and the Music app for free without having to pay, unless you’ve already started the 3-month free trial with Apple Music today.

If you haven’t already, please make sure to go ahead and upgrade your iPhone, iPod touch (5th Generation) or iPad to the latest software. This iOS update is much better now and is worth the upgrade. It is also the most stable software update that Apple have released before the final version of iOS 9 arrives in the Autumn.

To update your iOS Device, go to the Settings app, then to General, and then to Software Update, where the update will be available to download and install.

Until then, enjoy the update!!!

Alex Smithson

© Apple 2015

© iOS Logo Copyright of Apple.

© Any of the logos, including the screenshots that have references of musicians and their album artwork, that’s including the changelog that was used in this article are all courtesy of Apple. No Copyright Infringement Intended.

Case Study #6 / Former President: John Fitzgerald Kennedy

John Fitzgerald Kennedy - Case Study #6 (Please Note - Viewer Discretion is Advised)

Following from the 5th Case Study I published back in February about Sir Winston Churchill, comes Case Study #6. This case study will now focus on one of the most well known presidents of the United States, and that is, John Fitzgerald Kennedy.

In this case study, I will take a look back on John F Kennedy (a.k.a. JFK)’s life, as well as some of the moments in his life that have occurred through certain events, leading up to his death on the 22nd November 1963. So, without further ado, I will talk about John Fitzgerald Kennedy in Case Study #6.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy – 29th May 1917 – 22nd November 1963

Born on the 29th May 1917, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was an American politician who had served as the 35th President of the United States from the 20th January 1961, until the 22nd November 1963, when he was brutally assassinated. Many of the notable events that had occurred during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Space Race – by initiating Project Apollo (which had later on culminated in the moon landings), the building of the Berlin Will, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and the increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

After his military service as Commander of the Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 & PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, JFK had represented Massachusetts’ 11th Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he would then go on to serve in the U.S. Senate from that state from 1953 until 1960. John F Kennedy had defeated the Vice President & Republican Candidate, Richard Nixon, in the 1960 U.S. Presidential Election.

At just the age of 43 years, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had become the youngest man to have been elected to the office, making him the second-youngest president (after Theodore Roosevelt), and also the first person born in the 20th Century to serve as the President of the United States. To date, JFK has been the only Roman Catholic President, and also the only President to have won the Pulitzer Prize.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on the 22nd November 1963, and later that afternoon, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested and charged for the crime he committed that night. Jack Ruby had shot and killed Lee Harvey Oswald just two days later, before a trial for Lee could take place. The FBI (Federal Bureau Investigation, also means Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity), and the Warren Commission had officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin. The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) had agreed with the overall conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald had fired the fatal shots, which killed JFK, but had also concluded that John Fitzgerald Kennedy was probably assassinated due to the result of a conspiracy.

Since the 1960s, a lot of widespread information that concerned John F Kennedy’s private life has come to light. The details of JFK’s health problems with which he struggled have become better known, especially since the 1990s. Although this was initially kept a secret from the general public, the reports of Kennedy being unfaithful in his marriage to Jacqueline Bouvier at the time have since garnered a lot of press. Kennedy ranks highly in the public opinion ratings of U.S. Presidents, but there is a gap between his public reputation, as well as his own reputation among many academics.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s Early Life & Education

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, in Massachusetts, on the 29th May 1917, to the businessman/politician, Joseph Patrick “Joe” Kennedy, Sr. (1888-1969) and the philanthropist/socialite, Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald-Kennedy (1890-1995). His father was the oldest son of the businessman/politician, Patrick Joseph “P. J.” Kennedy (1858 – 1929) and Mary Augusta Hickey-Kennedy (1857 – 1923). His mother was the daughter of Boston Mayor, John Francis “Honey Fitz” Fitzgerald (1863 – 1950) and Mary Josephine “Josie” Hannon-Fitzgerald (1865 – 1964). All four of his grandparents were the children of immigrants from Ireland.

His brothers were Joseph Patrick “Joe” Kennedy, Jr. (1915 – 1944), Robert Francis “Bobby” Kennedy (1925 – 1968), and Edward Moore “Ted” Kennedy (1932 – 2009). Joseph Patrick “Joe” Kennedy Jr. was killed in action during World War II, while Robert & Ted were both prominent Senators. His sisters were Rose Marie “Rosemary” Kennedy (1918 – 2005), Kathleen Agnes “Kick” Kennedy (1920 – 1948), Eunice Mary Kennedy (1921 – 2009), Patrician Helen “Pat” Kennedy (1924 – 2006) and Jean Ann Kennedy (born 1928).

John F. Kennedy lived in Brookline for 10 years and had also attended the Edward Devotion School, the Noble and Greenough Lower School and the Dexter School through 4th grade. In 1927, the Kennedy family had moved to a stately twenty-room Georgian-Style mansion at 5040 Independence Avenue (which was across the street from Wave Hill) in the Hudson Hill neighbourhood of Riverdale, Bronx, in New York City. JFK had attended the River Campus of Riverdale Country School, a private boys’ school, from 5th grade to 7th grade.

Two years later, they had moved to 294 Pondfield Road in the New York City suburb of Bronxville in New York, where Kennedy was a member of Scout Troop 2. The Kennedy family had spent much of their summers at their home in Hyannisport in Massachusetts, and then their Easter and Christmas holidays at their Winter home in Palm Beach, in Florida. In September 1930, when John Fitzgerald Kennedy was just 13 years old, he had attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, in Connecticut, and in late April 1931, John F. Kennedy had required an appendectomy, after which he had withdrawn from Canterbury and had instead recuperated at home.

In September 1931, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was sent to The Choate School in Wallingford, in Connecticut for 9th grade, right through to 12th grade. His older brother was already at Choate for two years as a football player and leading student. He had spent his first years at Choate in his older brother’s shadow, and was compensated for this due to his rebellious behaviour which had attracted a coterie. Their most notorious stunt was to explode a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker.

In the ensuing chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, had brandished the toilet seat and had also spoken of certain “muckers” who would “spit in our tea”. The defiant Kennedy would take the cue and went on to name his group: “The Muckers Club“, which had included the roommate, and also their friend, Kirk LeMoyne “Lem” Billings.

During his Choate years, John F Kennedy was beset by health problems that had culminated in 1934 with his emergency hospitalisation at the Yale – New Haven Hospital, where the doctors there had thought that he might have leukaemia, and in June 1934, he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where his ultimate diagnosis there was confirmed to be colitis. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had graduated from Choate in the June of the following year, and for the school yearbook, the school yearbook of which he had been the business manager, Kennedy was voted the “most likely to succeed”.

In the September of 1935, JFK had made his first trip abroad with his parents, and also his sister, Kathleen, to London with the intention of studying under Harold Laski at the London School of Economic (a.k.a. LSE), as his older brother had done. Due to his ill-health, his ill-health forced him to return to America in the October of that year, when he had enrolled late and had spent six weeks at Princeton University.

He was then hospitalised for observation at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He had convalesced further at the Kennedy’s Winter home in Palm Beach, and then he has spent the Spring of 1936 working as a ranch hand on the 40,000 acre (160 km2) “Jay Six” cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona. It was reported that the ranchman, Jack Speiden, had worked both of the brothers “very hard”.

In the September of 1936, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had enrolled at Harvard College, where he would go on to produce that year’s annual “Freshman Smoker”, called by a reviewer “an elaborate entertainment, which included in its cast outstanding personalities of the radio, screen and sports world”. He tried out for the football, the golf, and the swimming teams and he had earned his spot on the varsity swimming team.

In the July of 1937, Kennedy had sailed to France – bringing his convertible – and had spent ten weeks driving through Europe with Billings, and in the June of 1938, JFK had sailed overseas with his father and older brother to work at the American Embassy in London, where his father was President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s U.S Ambassador to the Court of St. James’s.

In 1939, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans and the Middle East in preparation for his Harvard senior honours thesis. He had then gone to Czechoslovakia and Germant before returning to London on the 1st September 1939, and the 1st September 1939 was also the day that Germany had invaded Poland. Just two days later, the family was in the House of Commons for speeches that would endorse the United Kingdom’s declaration of war on Germany. Kennedy was sent as his father’s representative to help with the arrangements for the American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the United States from Foynes in Ireland, to Port Washington in New York on his first transatlantic flight.

As he was an upperclassman at Harvard, JFK had become more of a serious student, and he had developed an interest in the political philosophy. In his junior year, Kennedy had made the Dean’s List. In 1940, John F Kennedy had completed his thesis, which was based on the “Appeasement in Munich”, which was about the British participation in the Munich Agreement. The thesis had later on become a bestseller under the title: “Why England Slept”.

He had graduated from Harvard College with a Bachelor of Science cum laude in the International Affairs that year, and as well as this, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had enrolled in and also audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business in the Autumn. In early 1941, he had helped his father write a memoir of his three years as an American Ambassador, and then he travelled throughout South America. On the 12th September 1953, John Fitzgerald Kennedy got married to Jacqueline Bouvier at St. Mary’s Church in Newport in Rhode Island, after a one-year courtship.

Military Service (1941 – 1945)

In the September of 1941, after getting medical disqualification by the Army due to his chronic lower back problems, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had decided to join the U.S. Navy, with the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), the former naval attaché to Joseph Kennedy. Kennedy was an ensign, as he had served in the office of the Secretary of the Navy, when the attack on Pearl Harbor had occurred. JFK had attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps and had then voluntarily enter the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Centre in Melville, in Rhode Island.

His first command was PT-101, which he had briefly commanded from the 7th December 1942, until the 23rd February 1943. From there, he would lead three Huckins PT Boats – PT-98, PT-99 and PT-101, which were being relocated from MTBRON 4 in Melville, in Rhode Island, back to Jacksonville in Florida, and the new MTBRON 14 (which was formed on the 17th February 1943). During the transit South, Kennedy was briefly hospitalised after diving into the cold water to unfoul a propeller. Thereafter, he was then assigned the duty in Panama, and then later on in the Pacific Theatre, where Kennedy had earned the rank of Lieutenant, eventually commanding two more Patrol Torpedo (PT) boats.

On the 2nd August 1943, Kennedy’s boat, the PT-109, along with the PT-162 and the PT-169, was performing nighttime patrols near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands, when PT-109 was rammed by the Japanese destroyer, Amagiri. Kennedy had gathered his surviving crew members together in the water around the wreckage, to vote on whether to “fight or surrender”. He had also stated to them, “There’s nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose.” Shunning surrender, the men decided to swim towards a small island.

Kennedy, despite the re-injury he suffered to his back in the collision, towed a badly burned crewman through the water with a life jacket strap clenched between his teeth. He had towed the wounded man to the island, and later on to a second island, from where his crew were subsequently rescued. For these actions to take place, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal with the following citation:

For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1–2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore. His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

In the October of 1943, Kennedy had taken command of a PT boat, which was converted into the PT-59 gunboat, which had taken part in a Marine rescue on Choiseul Island that November. Kennedy had then left the PT-59 and also returned to the United States in early January 1944. After he received the relevant treatment that he needed for his back injury, Kennedy was released from active duty in late 1944.

Beginning in January 1945, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had spent three further months recovering from his back injury at Castle Hot Springs, a resort and also a temporary military hospital in Arizona. Kennedy was honorably discharged just prior to Japan’s surrender in 1945, and his other decorations in World War II had included the Purple Heart, the American Defense Service Medal, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze service stars, and the World War II Victory Medal. When he was later asked how he had become a war hero, John F Kennedy had joked by saying that: “It was easy. They cut my PT boat in half.”

In April 1945, Kennedy’s father, who was a friend of William Randolph Hearst, had arranged a position for his son as a special correspondent for Hearst Newspapers; the assignment had kept Kennedy’s name in the public eye and “expose[d] him to journalism as a possible career.” He had worked as a correspondent that May, where he would cover the Potsdam Conference and other events.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s Congressional Career

The U.S. House of Representatives (1947 – 1953)

While he was still serving, Kennedy’s older brother, Joe Jr., was killed in action over the English Channel during World War II. Because of the fact his eldest brother had been the family’s political standard-bearer and tapped by his father to seek Presidency, his death had changed that course, and the task now fell to Kennedy.

In 1946, the U.S. Representative, James Michael Curley, had vacated his seat in the strongly Democratic 11th Congressional District in Massachusetts – at the urgency of Kennedy’s father – to become the mayor of Boston. Kennedy had ran for the seat, and had also beaten his Republican opponent by a large margin in the November of 1946. From there, he would serve as a congressman for six years.

The U.S. Senate (1953 – 1960)

In the 1952 U.S. Senate Election, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had defeated the incumbent Republican, Henry Cabot Lodge II for the U.S. Senate seat and in the following year, he had married Jacqueline Bouvier. Kennedy had undergone several spinal operations over the next two years, and because of the fact that he was often absent from the Senate, he was, at times, critically ill and received the Catholic’s last rites.

During his convalescence in 1956, Kennedy had published his book, Profiles in Courage, which was about some, if not, many of the U.S. Senators who had risked their careers for their personal beliefs, for which he had won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957. Rumours that this work was co-written by his close adviser and speechwriter, Ted Sorensen, were confirmed in Sorensen’s 2008 autobiography.

At the 1956 Democratic National Convention, the Presidential nominee, Adlai Stevenson, let the convention select the Vice Presidential nominee. Kennedy had finished second in the balloting, losing to the Senator, Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. John F Kennedy had received a lot of national exposure from that episode; his father had initially thought that it was just as well that Kennedy had lost, due to the potential and political debility of his Catholicism and the strength of the Eisenhower ticket.

One of the matters that had demanded John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s attention in the Senate was President Eisenhower’s bill for the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Kennedy had cast a procedural vote on this, which was considered by some as an appeasement of the Southern Democratic opponents of the bill. Kennedy did vote, however, for Title III of the act, which would have given the Attorney General the power to enjoin, but the Majority Leader, Lyndon B. Johnson had agreed to let the provision die as a compromised measure.

Kennedy had also voted for Title IV, which was coined as the “Jury Trial Amendment”. Many of the civil rights advocates at the time had criticised that vote to be one which would have weakened the act. A final compromise bill, one of which John Fitzgerald Kennedy had supported, was passed in the September of 1957.

In 1958, JFK was re-elected for a second term in the Senate, and had also defeated his Republican opponent, the Boston Lawyer, Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin. It was during his re-election campaign that Kennedy’s press secretary at this time, Robert E. Thompson, had put together a film, titled: “The U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy Story“, which would exhibit a day in the life of the Senator himself, as well as showcasing his family life as well as the inner-workings of his office. It had then become known to be the most comprehensive film that was produced about John F Kennedy up to that particular time.

While JFK’s father was initially a strong supporter of the Senator, Joseph McCarthy, McCarthy was also a friend of the Kennedy family. As well as this, Bobby Kennedy had worked for McCarthy’s subcommittee, and McCarthy had dated Kennedy’s sister, Patricia Kennedy Lawford. In 1954, the Senate had voted to censure that McCarthy & Kennedy had drafted a speech that would support the censure.

The speech couldn’t be delivered, however, due to John F Kennedy’s hospitalisation at that time. The speech did, however, have the potential of putting Kennedy in the position of participating procedurally by “pairing” his vote against that of another Senator. Although Kennedy was unable to indicate how he would have voted, the episode had damaged his support among the members of the liberal community, including Eleanor Roosevelt, in the 1956 and 1960 elections.

The 1960 Presidential Election

On the 2nd January 1960, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had initiated his campaign for president in the Democratic Primary Election, where he would face the challenges that were made by the Senator, Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and the Senator, Wayne Morse of Oregon. Kennedy had defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia, Morse in Maryland and Oregon, as well as the token opposition (often known to have write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana & Nebraska.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had visited a coal mine in West Virginia. Most of the minors and others in that predominantly conservative, yet Protestant state, were quite wary of Kennedy’s Roman Catholicism, while his victory in West Virginia had confirmed his broad popular appeal.

At the Democratic Convention, he had given his well-known “New Frontier” speech, stating: “For the problems are not all solved and the battles are not all won—and we stand today on the edge of a New Frontier….. But the New Frontier of which I speak is not a set of promises—it is a set of challenges. It sums up not what I intend to offer the American people, but what I intend to ask of them.”

As Humphrey and Morse were eliminated, John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s main opponent at the Los Angeles Convention was the Senator, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Kennedy had overcome this formal challenge, as well as the informal ones from Adlai Stevenson (the Democratic nominee in 1952 & 1956), Stuart Symington, and several favourite sons, and on the 13th July, the Democratic Convention had nominated Kennedy as its candidate. Kennedy had asked Johnson to be his vice presidential candidate, despite his opposition from many of the liberal delegates and Kennedy’s own staff, including his own brother, Bobby.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy needed to have Johnson’s strength in the South to win what was most likely to be considered the closest election since 1916. There were some major issues that were included as to how the economy could get itself moving again, Cuba, Kennedy’s Roman Catholicism and whether the Soviet space and the missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S.

To address the fears that Kennedy being Catholic would impact his decision-making, he had famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on the 12th September 1960: “I am not the Catholic candidate for president. I am the Democratic Party candidate for president who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters – and the Church does not speak for me.” He was questioned rhetorically as to whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class membership just because they were Catholic, and he had once stated that: “No one asked me my religion [serving the Navy] in the South Pacific.”

During the course of this campaign, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had sought a meeting with the Rabbi, Menachem M. Schneerson, at his office in Brooklyn. Kennedy was turned down as the rabbi was already meeting a group of simple men and women that particular evening.

In September & October, Kennedy had appeared with the Republican Candidate, Richard Nixon, who was the then-vice president, in the U.S. Presidential Debates in U.S. History. During the course of these programs, Nixon, with a sore and injured leg, including his “five o’clock shadow”, was perspiring and looked tense and also uncomfortable, while JFK, choosing to avail himself of the makeup services, appeared to be relaxed, leading the huge television audience to favour Kennedy as the winner.

The radio listeners had either thought that Nixon had won, or that the debates were a draw. These debates are now considered to be a milestone in American Political History, as it was at the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in politics.

Kennedy’s campaign had gained him momentum after the first debate, and he had also pulled just slightly ahead of Nixon in most of the polls. On the 8th November, Kennedy had defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the 20th Century. In the National Popular Vote, Kennedy had led Nixon by just two-tenths of 1% (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College, he had won 303 votes to Nixon’s 219 (as 269 votes were needed for either Kennedy or Nixon to win).

Fourteen of the electors from Mississippi & Alabama had chosen to refuse to support Kennedy because of his support for the Civil Rights Movement; they had voted for the Senator, Harry F. Byrd of Virginia, as did the elector from Oklahoma. Kennedy was the youngest man to be elected as the president, succeeding Eisenhower, who was then the oldest (Ronald Reagan had surpassed Eisenhower as he had become the oldest president in 1981).

John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s Presidency (1961-1963)

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President at noon on the 20th January 1961. In his inaugural address, he had spoken of the need for all of the Americans to be active citizens, famously stating: “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” He asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he had called the “common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself”.

He had added that: “All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.” In his closing speech, he had expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: “Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.”

This address had reflected Kennedy’s confidence, as his administration would chart a historically significant in both the domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing the daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main focal tensions that would run through the early years of John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s administration.

He had brought to the White House a contrast in the organisation, which was compared to the decision-making structure of the former-general Eisenhower; and he had wasted no time in dismantling Eisenhower’s methods. Kennedy had preferred the organisational structure of a wheel, with all of the spokes leading to the President himself. He was more than ready and also willing to make the increased number of quick decisions that were required in such an environment. He had selected a mixture of experienced and inexperienced people to serve in his cabinet. “We can learn our jobs together”, is what he stated.

Much to the chagrin of his economic advisors who had wanted him to reduce the taxes, Kennedy had quickly agreed to a balanced budget pledge. This was need in exchange for the votes to expand the membership of the House Rules Committee in order to give the Democrats a majority in being able to set the legislative agenda. The president had focused on the immediate and specific issues that faced the administration, and he had quickly voiced his impatience with the pondering of deeper meanings. The Deputy National Security (DNS) advisor, Walt Whitman Rostow had once began a diatribe about the growth of communism, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy had abruptly cut him off, asking him: “What do you want to me to do about that today?”

Kennedy had approved the Defense Secretary, Robert McNamara’s controversial decision to award the contract for the F-111 TFX (Tactical Fighter Experimental) fighter-bomber to General Dynamics (the choice of the civilian Defense department over Boeing (the choice of the military). At the request of the Senator, Henry Jackson, Senator John McClellan had held 46 days of mostly closed-door hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations investigating the TFX Contract from February to November 1963.

The Foreign Policy

John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s Presidential Foreign Policy was often dominated by the American confrontations with the Soviet Union, which was manifested by the proxy contests in the early stage of the Cold War. In 1961, Kennedy had anxiously anticipated a summit with the Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev. The president had started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on the Cold War confrontation in early 1961. The speech was initially intended for the domestic audiences in the Soviet Union, but John F Kennedy had interpreted it as a personal challenger. His mistake was what helped to raise the tensions of going into the Vienna Summit of June 1961.

On the way to the Vienna Summit, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had stopped in Paris to meet Charles de Gaulle, who had advised Kennedy to ignore Khrushchev’s abrasive style. The French President had feared that of the United States’ presumed influence in Europe. Nevertheless, Charles de Gaulle was quite impressed with the young president, and also his family. Kennedy had picked up on this in his speech in Paris, saying that he would be remembered as “the man who accompanied Jackie Kennedy to Paris.”

On the 4th June 1961, the president had met with Khrushchev in Vienna and had left the meetings feeling angry and also disappointed that he had allowed the Premier to bully him, despite the warnings that he had received. Khrushchev, for his part, was impressed with the President’s intelligence, but had though of him to be weak. John Fitzgerald Kennedy did succeed in conveying the bottom line to Khrushchev on the most sensitive issue before them, a proposed treaty between Moscow and East Berlin. He made it clear that any such treaty which would interfere with the U.S. Access Rights in West Berlin would be regarded as an act of war.

Shortly after the president had returned home, the U.S.S.R. had announced its intention to sign a treaty with East Berlin, which would abrogate any third-party occupation rights in either sector of the city. Kennedy, feeling depressed and angry as he was, had assumed that his only option was to prepare the country for a nuclear war, which he had personally thought had a one-in-five chance of occurring.

In the following weeks immediately after the Vienna Summit took place, more than 20,000 people had fled from East Berlin to the Western Sector in reactiont to the statements from the U.S.S.R. Kennedy had begun intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson had taken the lead to recommend a military buildup alongside the NATO allies. In a July 1961 speech, Kennedy had announced his decision to add $3.25 billion to the defense budget, along with over 200,000 additional troops, stating that an attack on West Berlin would be taken as an attack on the United States. The speech had received an 85% approval rating.

That following month, the Soviet Union and East Berlin began to block any further passage of East Berliners into West Berlin, and they had erected barbed wire fences across the city, which were quickly upgraded to make the famously known Berlin Wall. Kennedy’s reaction at that stage was that he would initially ignore this, as long as free access continued for West to East Berlin. This course, however, was altered, after it was learned that the West Berliners had lost their confidence in the defense of their position by the United States. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had sent the Vice President, Johnson, along with a host of military personnel, in convoy through West Germany, including the Soviet-armed checkpoints, to demonstrate the continued commitment of the United States to West Berlin.

He had given a speech at the Saint Anselm College on the 5th May 1960, which had regarded America’s conduct in the emerging Cold War. This address would detail how the American Foreign Policy should be conducted towards the African Nations, which would note a hint of support for Modern African Nationalism by saying that “For we, too, founded a new nation on revolt from colonial rule”.

Cuba & The Bay of Pigs Invasion

The prior Eisenhower administration had created a plan which would plot to overthrow the Fidel Castro Regime in Cuba. This plan, which was led by the Central Intelligence Agency (also known as the Criminal Investigation Agency & CIA), with the help from the U.S. military, was for an invasion of Cuba by a counter-revolutionary insurgency, which had composed of U.S. trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles, that were led by the CIA paramilitary officers. Their intention was to invade Cuba and also instigate an uprising among the Cuban people, with hopes of removing Fidel Castro from power.

On the 17th April 1961, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had ordered what would become known as the “Bay of Pigs Invasion”: as 1,500 U.S.-trained Cubans, called “Brigade 2506″, had landed on the island. No air support from the United States was provided, and Allen Dulles, the director of the CIA, had later stated that they thought the President would authorise any action that was required for success once the troops were on the ground.

By the 19th April 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After just 20 months, Cuba had released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine. The incident had made Fidel Castro feel wary of the United States, which had led him to believe another invasion would occur.

According to the biographer, Richard Reeves, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had primarily focused on the political repercussions of the plan rather than military considerations. When it failed, he was actually convinced that the plan was a setup to make him look bad. He had taken responsibility for the failure, and had said: “We got a big kick in the leg and we deserved it. But maybe we’ll learn something from it.”

In late 1961, the White House had formed the “Special Group (Augmented)”, headed by Robert Kennedy, including Edward Lansdale, the Secretary, Robert McNamara and others. The group’s objective, which was to overthrow Fidel Castro via espionage, sabotage and other covert tactics, was never pursued.

The Cuban Missile Crisis

On the 14th October 1962, the CIA U-2 spy planes took photographs of the intermediate-range ballistic missile sites being built in Cuba by the Soviets. The photos were shown to Kennedy on the 16th October 1962; a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature and had thus posed as an immediate nuclear threat.

Kennedy had faced a dilemma: if the U.S. were to attack the sites, it might lead to a nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the United States did nothing, it would be faced with the increased threat from the close-range nuclear weapons. The U.S. would also appear to be less committed to the defense of the hemisphere. On a personal level, JFK would need to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna Summit.

More than a third of the members of the National Security Council (NSC) had favoured an unannounced air assault on the missile sites, but for some of them, this had conjured up an image of “Pearl Harbor in reverse”. There was also some reaction from the international community (who were asked in confidence), that the assault plan was an overreaction in the light of the U.S. missiles that had been placed in Turkey by Eisenhower.

There would also be no assurance that the assault would be 100% effective. In concurrence with a majority-vote of the NSC, Kennedy had decided on a naval quarantine, and on the 22nd October, he had dispatched a message to Khrushchev and had announced the decision live on TV.

The U.S. Navy would stop and inspect all Soviet ships arriving off Cuba, beginning on the 24th October. The Organisation of American States had given their unanimous support to the removal of the missiles. The president had exchanged two sets of letters with Khrushchev, to no avail, and the United Nations (UN) Secretary General, U Thant, had requested that both parties reverse their decisions and enter a cooling-off period. Khrushchev had said yes, but John Fitzgerald Kennedy had said no.

One Soviet-flagged ship was stopped and also boarded, and on the 28th October, Khrushchev had agreed to dismantle the missile sites, subject to the UN inspections. The United States had publicly promised never to invade Cuba and had also privately agreed to remove its missiles in Turkey, which were, by then, obsolete and had been supplanted by the submarines, which were equipped with the UGM-27 Polaris missiles.

This crisis had brought the world close to nuclear war than at any point before or since. In the end, “the humanity” of the two men prevailed, and the crisis had improved the image of American Willpower, as well as the President’s Credibility. Kennedy’s approval rating had increased from 66% to 77% immediately thereafter.

Latin America & Communism

By arguing that “those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,” John Fitzgerald Kennedy had sought to contain the perceived threat of communism in Latin America, by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which would send aid to some countries and sought greater human rights standards in the region. John F Kennedy had worked closely with the Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, and he had also began working towards the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

When the president had taken office, the Eisenhower administration, through the CIA, had begun to formulate plans for the assassination of Fidel Castro in Cuba and Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. Kennedy had privately instructed the CIA that any such planning must include the plausible deniability by the U.S. His public position was in opposition, and in June 1961, the Dominican Republic’s leader was assassinated; in the days following the event, the Undersecretary of State, Chester Bowles, led a cautious reaction by the nation. Robert Kennedy, who had seen an opportunity for the U.S., called Chester Bowles “a gutless bastard” to his face.

The Peace Corps

As one of his first presidential acts, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had asked the Congress to create the Peace Corps. His brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, was the first director, and through this program, the Americans would volunteer to help the underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, healthcare and construction. The organisation had grown to 5,000 members by March 1963 and 10,000 the following year, and since 1961, over 200,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps, serving in 139 countries.

Southeast Asia

When Kennedy was briefed, Eisenhower had emphasised that the communist threat in Southeast Asia had required priority; Eisenhower had considered Laos to be “the cork in the bottle” in regards to the regional threat. In March 1961, JFK had voiced a change in the policy from supporting a “free” Laos to a “neutral” Laos, indicating privately that Vietnam, and not Laos, should be deemed as America’s tripwire for the communism’s spread in the area.

In May 1961, Kennedy had dispatched Lyndon Johnson to meet with South Vietnam’s President, Ngo Dinh Diem. Johnson had assured Diem that there would be more aid in molding a fighting force that could resist the communists. Kennedy had announced a change of policy from support to partnership with Diem in defeat of communism in South Vietnam.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had initially followed Eisenhower’s lead, using limited military action to fight the communist forces that were led by Ho Chi Minh. He had continued the policies that had provided the political, economic and military support to the South Vietnamese Government. Later on in 1961, the Viet Cong began to assume a predominant presence, which would initially seize the provincial capital of Phuoc Vinh. Kennedy had increased the number of helicopters, military advisors, and also undeclared the U.S. Special Forces in the area, but he had remained reluctant to order a full-scale deployment of troops.

In late 1961, John F Kennedy had sent Roger Hilsman, the then director of the State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research, to assess the situation in Vietnam. There, Hilsman had met Sir Robert Thompson, who was the head of the British Advisory Mission to South Vietnam and the concept of the Strategic Hamlet Program was formed. It was later on approved by Kennedy and the South Vietnam President, Ngo Dinh Diem.

It was implemented in early 1962 and this had involved some forced relocation, village internment, and segregation of rural South Vietnamese into new communities where the peasantry would be isolated from the Communist insurgents. It was initially hoped that these new communities would provide the security for the peasants and strengthen the tie between them and the central government. By the November of 1963, the program had waned and had then officially come to an end in 1964.

In early 1962, Kennedy had formally authorised the escalated involvement when he signed the “National Security Action Memorandum – Subversive Insurgency (War of Liberation)”. The Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, had voiced his strong support for the U.S. involvement. “Operation Ranch Hand”, which was a large-scale aerial defoliation effort, began on the roadsides of South Vietnam.

In the April of 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had addressed the situation in Vietnam, stating that: “We don’t have a prayer of staying in Vietnam. Those people hate us. They are going to throw our asses out of there at any point. But I can’t give up that territory to the communists and get the American people to re-elect me”. Kennedy had faced a crisis in Vietnam by July; despite the increased U.S. support, the South Vietnamese military was only marginally effective against the pro-communist Viet Cong forces.

On the 21st August, just as the new U.S. Ambassador, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. arrived, Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, had ordered the South Vietnam forces, funded and trained by the CIA, to quell the Buddhist demonstrations. The crackdowns had heightened their expectations of a coup d’état to remove Diem with (or perhaps by) his brother, Nhu. Lodge was, however, instructed to try and get Diem & Nhu to step down and leave the country. Diem wouldn’t listen to Lodge.

Cable 243 (DEPTEL 243), dated the 24th August, followed, which would declare that Washington would no longer tolerate Nhu’s actions, and Lodge was subsequently ordered to pressure Diem to remove Nhu. If Diem had refused, this would result in the Americans exploring alternative leadership. Lodge had quite clearly stated that the only workable option was to get the South Vietnamese Generals to overthrow Diem & Nhu, as originally planned.

By the week’s end, Kennedy had learned from Lodge that the Diem government might, due to France’s assistance to Nhu, be dealing secretly with the communists – and that they might ask the Americans to leave; orders were then sent to Saigon and throughout Washington to “destroy all coup cables”. At the same time, the first formal anti-Vietnam war sentiment was expressed by the U.S. clergy from the Ministers’ Vietnam Committee.

A White House meeting in the September of that year was indicative of the very different ongoing appraisals; the President was given the updated assessments after personal inspections on the ground by the Department of Defense (General Victor Krulak) and the State Department (Joseph Mendenhall). Krulak had said that the military fight against the communists was progressing and was also being won, while Mendenhall had stated that the country was civilly being lost to any U.S. influence.

Kennedy had reacted, by stating: “Did you two gentlemen visit the same country?” The President was actually unaware that the two men were at such odds that they had somehow not spoken to each other whilst on the return flight.

In the October of 1963, the President had appointed the Defense Secretary, McNamara and the General, Maxwell D. Taylor, to a Vietnam mission in another effort to synchronise the information and formulation of policy. The objective of the McNamara Taylor mission is what would emphasise their “importance of getting to the bottom of the differences in reporting from U.S. representatives in Vietnam”. In meetings with McNamara, Taylor and Lodge, Diem had again refused to agree to the governing measures that were insisted upon by the United States, which had helped to dispel McNamara’s previous optimism about Diem.

Taylor & McNamard were also enlightened by Vietnam’s Vice President, Nguyen Ngoc Tho (the choice of many to succeed Diem, should a coup occur), who, in detailed terms had obliterated Taylor’s information that the military was succeeding in the countryside. In John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s insistence, the mission report had contained a recommended schedule for the troop withdrawals: 1,000 by year’s end, and complete withdrawal in 1965, something that the NSC had considered to be a strategic fantasy. The final report had declared that the military was making process, that the increasingly unpopular Diem-led government was not vulnerable to a coup, and that an assassination of Diem or Nhu was a general possibility.

In late October, the intelligence wires had again reported that a coup against the Diem government was already afoot. The source, Vietnamese General Duong Van Minh (also known as “Big Minh”), wanted to know the U.S. position. Kennedy had instructed Lodge to offer covert assistance to the coup, which would exclude the assassination, and to ensure that there was deniability by the U.S.

Later that month, as the coup had become imminent, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had ordered that all cables were to be routed through him, and a policy of “control and cut out” was initiated to insure that there was presidential control of U.S. responses, whilst cutting him out of the paper trail.

On the 1st November 1963, the South Vietnamese Generals, led by “Big Minh”, overthrew the Diem government, arresting and then killing both Diem and Nhu. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was shocked by the deaths. He had found out afterwards that Minh had asked the CIA field office to secure the safe-passage out of the country for Diem and Nhu, but he was told that 24 hours were needed in order for them to procure a plane. Minh had responded that he could not hold them that long.

News of the coup had initially led to renewed confidence – both in America and in South Vietnam – that the war might be won. McGeorge Bundy had drafted a National Security Action Memo to present to Kennedy upon his return from Dallas. It would reiterate the resolve to fight communism in Vietnam, with increasing military and economic aid and expansion of operations into Laos and Cambodia.

Before he had left for Dallas, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had told Michael Forrestal that “after the first of the year … [he wanted] an in depth study of every possible option, including how to get out of there … to review this whole thing from the bottom to the top”. When he was asked what he thought the President meant, Forrestal had said that “it was devil’s advocate stuff.”

Historians have disagreed on whether Vietnam would have escalated had Kennedy survived and been re-elected in 1964. By fueling the debate, there were statements made by the Secretary of Defense, McNamara, in the film: “The Fog of War” that JFK was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election. The film had also contained a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson, stating that Kennedy was planning to withdraw, a position of which that Johnson had disagreed with.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had signed the National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, which was dated the 11th October, which had ordered the withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of the year. Such an action would have seen a reversal in policy, but Kennedy had decided to move in a less hawkish direction since his acclaimed speech about World Peace at American University on the 10th June 1963.

When Robert Kennedy was asked in 1964 what his brother would have done if the South Vietnamese had been on the brink of defeat, he replied by stating that: “We’d face that when we came to it.” At the time of John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s death, no final policy decision had been made as to Vietnam. The U.S’ involvement in the region had escalated until Lyndon Johnson, his successor, had directly deployed the regular U.S. military forces for fighting the Vietnam War. After Kennedy was assassinated, President Johnson had passed the NSAM 273 on the 26th November 1963. This had, in turn, reversed Kennedy’s decision to withdraw 1,000 troops, and had also reaffirmed the policy of assistance to the South Vietnamese.

The American University Speech

On the 10th June 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had delivered the commencement address at the American University in Washington, D.C., “to discuss a topic on which too often ignorance abounds and the truth is too rarely perceived—yet it is the most important topic on earth: world peace … I speak of peace because of the new face of war…in an age when a singular nuclear weapon contains ten times the explosive force delivered by all the allied forces in the Second World War … an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by wind and air and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn … I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men … world peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbor—it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance … our problems are man-made—therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants.”

The President had also made two announcements – that the Soviets had expressed a desire to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty, and that the U.S. had postponed the planned atmospheric tests.

The West Berlin Speech

In 1963, Germany was enduring a time of which there was particular vulnerability, due to the Soviet’s aggression to the East, de Gaulle’s French Nationalism to the West, and the impending retirement of the West German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer.

On the 26th June 1963, John F Kennedy gave a public speech in West Berlin (located in East Germany), which would reiterate the American commitment to Germany, as well as criticising communism. He was met with an ecstatic response from a massive audience.

Kennedy had used the construction of the Berlin Wall as an example of the failures of communism:

“Freedom has many difficulties, and democracy is not perfect. But we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us.” The speech is known for its famous phrase Ich bin ein Berliner (“I am a citizen of Berlin”). A million people were on the street for the speech. He remarked to Ted Sorensen afterwards: “We’ll never have another day like this one, as long as we live.”

Israel

In 1960, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had stated that: “Israel will endure and flourish. It is the child of hope and the home of the brave. It can neither be broken by adversity nor demoralized by success. It carries the shield of democracy and it honors the sword of freedom”.

While he was subsequently the President, John F Kennedy had initiated the creation of security ties with Israel, as he was credited as the founder of the U.S-Israeli Military Alliance (which would be continued under subsequent Presidents). Kennedy had ended the arms embargo that the Eisenhower and Truman administrations had enforced on Israel. By describing the protection of Israel as a moral and national commitment, he was the first to introduce the concept of a ‘special relationship’ (as he had described it to Golda Meir) between the U.S. & Israel.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had extended the first informal security guarantees to Israel in 1962, and beginning in 1963, he was the first U.S. President to allow the sale to Israel of advanced U.S. weaponry (the MIM-23 Hawk), as well as to provide diplomatic support for the Israeli policies, which were opposed by Arab neighbours; such as its water project on the Jordan River.

As a result of this newly created security alliance, Kennedy had also encountered a lot of tensions with the Israeli Government regarding the production of nuclear materials in Dimona, which he had believed could instigate a nuclear arms-race in the Middle East. After the existence of a nuclear plant was initially denied by the Israeli government, David Ben-Gurion had stated in a speech to the Israeli Knesset on the 21st December 1960 that the purpose of the nuclear plant at Beersheba was for “research in problems of arid zones and desert flora and fauna”. When Ben-Gurion had met with JFK in New York, he had claimed that Dimona was being developed to provide the nuclear power for desalinisation and other peaceful purposes “for the time being”.

When Kennedy had written that he was skeptical, and stated in a May 1963 letter to Ben-Gurion that American support to Israel could be in jeopardy if the reliable information on the Israeli nuclear program was not forthcoming, Ben-Gurion had repeated previous reassurances that Dimona was being developed for peaceful purposes. The Israeli Government had resisted the American pressure to open its nuclear facilities to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, and in 1962, the U.S. and Israeli governments had agreed to an annual inspection regime.

A science attaché at the embassy in Tel Aviv had concluded that parts of the Dimona facility had been shut down temporarily to mislead the American scientists when they had visited.

According to Seymour Hersh, the Israelis had set up false control rooms to show the Americans. The Israeli lobbyist, Abe Feinburg had stated that: “It was part of my job to tip them off that Kennedy was insisting on [an inspection].” Hersh had contended that the inspections were conducted in such a way that it had: “guaranteed that the whole procedure would be little more than a whitewash, as the president and his senior advisors had to understand: the American inspection team would have to schedule its visits well in advance, and with the full acquiescence of Israel.”.

Marc Trachtenburg had argued by stating: “Although well aware of what the Israelis were doing, Kennedy chose to take this as satisfactory evidence of Israeli compliance with America’s non-proliferation policy.”The American who led the inspection team stated that the essential goal of the inspections was to find “ways to not reach the point of taking action against Israel’s nuclear weapons program”.

Rodger Davies, the director of the State Department’s Office of Near Eastern Affairs, had concluded in March 1965 that Israel was developing the nuclear weapons, and he also reported that Israel’s target date for achieving nuclear capability was 1968-69. On the 1st May 1968, the Undersecretary of State, Nicholas Katzenbach, had told President Johnson that Dimona was producing enough plutonium to produce two bombs a year. The State Department had argued that if Israel had wanted arms, it should accept international supervision of its nuclear program. Dimona was never placed under the IAEA safeguards. Attempts to write Israeli’s adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) into contracts for the supply of U.S. weapons had continued throughout 1968.

Iraq

In 1963, the Kennedy administration had backed the coup against the government of Iraq, which was headed by Abd al-Karim Qasim, who had, five years earlier, deposed the Western-allied Iraqi Monarchy. On the 8th February 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had received a memo, stating that: “We will make informal friendly noises as soon as we can find out whom to talk with, and ought to recognize as soon as we’re sure these guys are firmly in the saddle. CIA had excellent reports on the plotting, but I doubt either they or UK should claim much credit for it.” The CIA had originally planned to remove Qasim in the past, but those efforts unfortunately didn’t come to fruition.

The new government, which was led by President Abdul Salam Arif, was dominated by the Ba’ath Party (along with a coalition of Nasserists and Iraqi nationalists), and they used lists – possibly provided by the CIA – of suspected communists and other leftists to systematically murder unknown numbers of Iraq’s educated elite.

After a power struggle with the Ba’athist Prime Minister, Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Arif had purged the Ba’ath Party from the government. The former CIA officer, James Chritchfield, had disputed the notion that the CIA had offered “active support” to the coup plotters, arguing that while they were “well-informed” on the first coup, it was “surprised” by the power struggles that had soon followed.

Ireland

During Kennedy’s four-day visit to his ancestral home of Ireland in June 1963, he had accepted a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland, and he had also received his honorary degrees from the National University of Ireland and also Trinity College, in Dublin. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had visited the cottage at Dunganstown, located near New Ross, in County Wexford, where his ancestors had originally lived before emigrating to America.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had also become the first foreign leader to address the Houses of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament). On the 22nd December 2006, the Irish Department of Justice had released the declassified police documents, which had indicated that the security was heightened as Kennedy was the core focal subject of three death threats during this visit in particular.

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, John F Kennedy and Khrushchev had agreed to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty, which was originally conceived in Adlai Stevenson’s 1956 Presidential Campaign. In their Vienna Summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy had reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but the Soviet Union had begun to test the nuclear weapons that September.

The United States had responded by conducting tests five days later. Shortly after that took place, the new U.S. satellites had began to deliver images which would make it clear the Soviets were substantially behind the U.S. in the arms race. Nevertheless, the greater nuclear strength of the United States was of little value as long as the U.S.S.R. had perceived themselves to be at a parity.

In the July of 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had sent W. Averell Harriman to Moscow to negotiate a treaty with the Soviets. The introductory sessions would include Khrushchev, who had later on delegated the Soviet representation to Andrei Gromyko, and it had quickly become clear that a comprehensive test ban would not be implemented, and this was largely due to the reluctance of the Soviets to allow inspections that would verify compliance.

Ultimately, the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom were the initial signatories to a limited treaty, which would prohibit the atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but not underground. The U.S. Senate had ratified this, and Kennedy had signed it into law in October 1963, but France was quick to declare that it was free to continue developing and testing its own nuclear defenses.

-Domestic Policy- (Indicates continuity, but a turn in a similarly different direction)

John F Kennedy had called his domestic program the “New Frontier”, as it had ambitiously promised federal funding for education, as well as medical care for the elderly, along with economic aid for the rural regions, that’s including the government’s intervention to halt the recession. JFK had also promised an end to racial discrimination.

In his 1963 State of the Union address, Kennedy had also proposed a substantial tax reform, as well as a reduction in the income tax rate from the current range of 20-90% to a range of 14-65%; he also proposed a reduction in the corporate tax rates from 52% down to 47%. JFK had also added that the top rate should be set at 70%, only if certain deductions were not eliminated for high income earners. The Congress didn’t act until 1964, after JFK’s death, when the top individual rate was lowered to 70%, and the top corporate rate was set at 48% (see the Revenue Act of 1964).

To the Economic Club of New York, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had spoken in 1963 of “… the paradoxical truth that tax rates are too high and revenues too low; and the soundest way to raise revenue in the long term is to lower rates now.” The Congress had passed a few of Kennedy’s major programs during his lifetime, but did not vote them through in 1964-1965 under his successor, Lyndon Johnson.

The Economy

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had ended a period of tight fiscal policies, which would help to loosen the monetary policy to keep the interest rates down, and also encourage the growth of the economy. He had presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 was what led to the country’s first non-war, non-recession deficit.

The economy, which had been through two recessions and was in one when Kennedy had taken office, accelerated notably during his presidency. Despite the low inflation and interest rates, the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) had grown by an average of only 2.2% per annum during the Eisenhower Presidency (which was scarcely more than the population growth at that time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower’s last 12 months in office.

The economy had turned around and prospered during the Kennedy administration, and the GDP had expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963, while the inflation had remained steady at around 1% and unemployment eased. The industrial production had risen by 15% and the motor vehicle sales had risen by 40%. This rate of growth in GDP and industry had continued until around 1969, and as such, has yet to be repeated for such a sustained period of time.

Bobby Kennedy had stated that: “We’re going for broke….. their expense accounts, where they’ve been and what they’ve been doing….. the FBI is to interview them all….. we can’t lose this.”

Robert had taken the position that the steel executives had illegally colluded to fix prices.. The administration’s actions are what influence the U.S. Steel to rescind the price increase. The Wall Street Journal had written that the administration had acted: “by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police.” The Yale Law Professor, Charles Reich, had opined in The New Republic that the administration had violated the civil liberties by calling a grand jury to indict the U.S. Steel for collusion so quickly.

A New York Times editorial had praised John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s actions and had also said that the steel industry’s price increase: “imperils the economic welfare of the country by inviting a tidal wave of inflation.” Nevertheless, the administration’s Bureau of Budget had reported that the price increase would have resulted in a possible net gain for GDP, as well as a possible net budget surplus. The stock market, which had steadily declined since Kennedy’s election, dropped 10%, shortly after the administration’s action on the steel industry.

Federal & Military Death Penalty

As he was the President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had overseen the last federal execution prior to Furman v. Georgia, a 1972 case that had led to a moratorium on federal execution. Victor Feguer was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa, and was later on executed on the 15th March 1963. Kennedy had commuted a death sentence which was imposed by a military court on the seaman, Jimmie Henderson, on the 12th February 1963, changing the death penalty to life in prison.

On the 22nd March 1962, John F Kennedy had signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), which would abolish the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction left in the United States with such a penalty. The death penalty, however, has not been applied in the District of Columbia since 1957, and has now been abolished.

Civil Rights

The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. The Jim Crow segregation was one of the established laws in the Deep South. The Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in the Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many of the schools, especially those located in the Southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court’s decision. The Court had also prohibited segregation at other public facilities (such as buses, theatres, restaurants, courtrooms, bathrooms and beaches), but it had still continued nonetheless.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had verbally chosen to support racial integration and also the civil rights; during the 1960 campaign, Kennedy had phoned Coretta Scott King, the wife of the Reverend, Martin Luther King, Jr., who was jailed for trying to integrate a department store lunch counter. Robert Kennedy had called the Georgia Governor, Ernest Vandiver, and had also obtained King’s release from prison, which had drawn additional black support to his brother’s candidacy.

In his first State of the Union Address in the January of 1961, President Kennedy had stated that: “The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race – at the ballot box and elsewhere – disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage.”

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had believed that the grassroots movement for civil rights would anger many of the Southern whites, and also make it more difficult for them to pass the Civil Rights laws in the Congress, which was dominated by the Conservative Southern Democrats, and he had chosen to distance himself from it.

John F Kennedy was also a lot more concerned with the other issues that occurred early into his presidency, such as the Cold War, the Bay of Pigs fiasco and the situation that occurred in Southeast Asia. As articulated by his brother, Robert Kennedy, the administration’s early priority was to “keep the president out of this civil rights mess”. Many of the civil rights leaders had viewed Kennedy to be lukewarm, especially where the Freedom Riders were concerned, as they had organised an integrated public transportation effort in the South, and were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including the law enforcement officers, both federal and state.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had assigned the federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders as an alternative to using the federal troops or the uncooperative FBI agents. Robert Kennedy, speaking for the President, had urged the Freedom Riders that they would have to”get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts.”

On the 6th March 1961, John F Kennedy had signed the Executive Order 10925, which would require the government contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.” This would establish the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity.

Displeased with the pace of Kennedy addressing the issue of segregation, Martin Luther King, Jr., and his associates, had produced a document in 1962, which would call on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a different kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation – Kennedy had decided to not execute the order.

In the September of 1962, James Meredith had enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering. The Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, had responded by sending 400 federal marshals, while President Kennedy had reluctantly sent 3,000 troops after the situation on the campus had turned violent. The Ole Miss Riot of 1962 had left two dead, with the result of dozens being injured in the process, but James Meredith was finally able to enrol in his first class.

The instigating subculture at the Ole Miss Riot and at many of the other racially ignited events, was the Ku Klux Clan. On the 20th November 1962, JFK had signed the Executive Order 11063, which would prohibit any forms of racial discrimination in federally supported housing or “related facilities”.

In early 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had related to Martin Luther King, Jr., about the prospects for the Civil Rights Legislation, by stating that: “If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill.” The Civil Rights clashes were on the rise that year, and JFK’s brother, Robert Kennedy and Ted Sorenson, had pressed Kennedy to take more of the initiative on the legislative front.

On the 11th June 1963, the President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had intervened when the Alabama Governor, George Wallace, had blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop the two African American students, James Hood and Vivian Malone, from attending. George Wallace had only moved aside after he was confronted by the Deputy Attorney General, Nicholas Katzenbach, and the Alabama National Guard; which had only just been federalised by the order of the President.

During that evening, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had given his famous Civil Rights address live on national television and radio, where he would launch his initiative for the Civil Rights Legislation – to provide full, and equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.

His proposals are what would become a part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The day had ended with the murder of the NAACP leader, Medgar Evers, in front of his home in Mississippi. As the President had predicted, the day after his television speech, and in reaction to it, the House Majority leader, Carl Albert, had called Kennedy to advise him that his two-year signature effort in the Congress to combat the poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily due to the votes of the Southern Democrats and also the Republicans.

Earlier on, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had signed the Executive Order that had created the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women on the 14th December 1961. The Former First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt, had led the commission. The Commission statistics had revealed that women were also experiencing many different forms of discrimination; their final report is what had documented the legal and cultural barriers that were issued in the October of 1963. Furthermore, on the 10th June 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law of which that would amend the Fair Labor Standards Act, which was aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on a person’s sex.

Over a hundred thousand, predominantly the African Americans, had gathered in Washington for the Civil Rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on the 28th August 1963. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had feared that the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the Civil Rights Bills in the Congress, and had chosen to decline an invitation to speak. He had also turned over some of the details of the government’s involvement to the Department of Justice, which had channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to the six sponsors of the March, that’s including the N.A.A.C.P. and also Martin Luther King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).

To ensure that there was a peaceful demonstration, the organisers and the President had personally edited the speeches that were considered inflammatory and had also agreed that the March would be held on the Wednesday, and that it would be over at 4:00 PM. Thousands of troops were placed on standby, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy had watched the King’s speech on TV and was very impressed.

The March itself was considered to be a “triumph of managed protest”, and not one arrest that related to the demonstration had occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders had accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with John Fitzgerald Kennedy and a lot of photographs were taken. Kennedy had felt that the March alone was a victory for him as well, and this had bolstered the chances further for his civil rights bill.

Nevertheless, the struggle was still far from being over, because three weeks later, a bomb had exploded on Sunday 15th September at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; by the end of the day, four of the African American children had died in the explosion and two other children were shot to death in the aftermath.

Due to this resurgent form of violence, the Civil Rights Legislation had undergone some drastic amendments that had critically endangered any prospects for the passage of the bill, much to the outrage of the President. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had called the Congressional Leaders to the White House, and by the following day, the original bill, without the additions, had just enough votes to get itself out of the House Committee.

The Civil Liberties

In 1963, the FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, who had hated the Civil Rights leader, Martin Luther King, Jr. and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker, had presented to the Kennedy Administration the allegations that some of Martin Luther King’s close confidants and advisers were communists. Concerns that the allegations, if made public, would derail the Administration’s Civil Rights initiatives, Robert Kennedy and the President had both warned Martin Luther King, Jr. to discontinue the suspect associations.

After the associations had continued, Robert Kennedy had felt compelled to issue a written directive, which would help to authorise the FBI to wiretap King, and also the other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King’s Civil Rights organisation.

Although Kennedy had only given written approval for the limited wiretapping of King’s phones “on a trial basis, for a month or so”, Hoover had decided to extend the clearance to that his men were left “unshackled” to look for the evidence any areas of King’s life that they had deemed worthy. The wiretapping had continued through June 1966, and was revealed later on in 1968.

Immigration

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had originally proposed an overhaul of the American Immigration Policy that, later on, was to become the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which was sponsored by Kennedy’s brother, the Senator, Edward Kennedy. It had dramatically shifted the source of immigration from the Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America and Asia.

This policy change is what had also shifted the emphasis in the selection of immigrants in favour of family reunification. John Fitzgerald Kennedy had wanted to dismantle the selection of immigrants based on their country of origin, and had also seen this as an extension to his civil rights policies.

Native American Relations

The construction of the Kinzua Dam had flooded 10,000 acres (4,047 ha) of the Seneca nation land that they had occupied under the Treaty of 1794, and this had forced the 600 Seneca to relocate to Salamanca, in New York. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was asked by the American Civil Liberties Union to intervene and also halt the project, but he had chosen to decline, which cited a critical need for flood control. He had also expressed his concerns about the plight of the Seneca, and had, instead, chosen to direct the government agencies to assist in obtaining more land, damages and also assistance to help mitigate their displacement, following the result of the flood.

The Space Policy

The Apollo Program was conceived early in 1960, during the Eisenhower administration, as this served as a follow-up to Project Mercury. While NASA had gone ahead with planning for Apollo, the funding for the program was far from certain, given Eisenhower’s opposition to the manned spaceflight. John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s advisors had speculated that a Moon flight would be prohibitively expensive, but he had decided to postpone the decision.

Kennedy had appointed the Vice President, Lyndon Johnson, as the chairman of the U.S. Space Council, a strong supporter of the U.S. Space Program who had worked for the creation of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) in the Senate. In Kennedy’s January 1961 State of the Union address, he had suggested international co-operation in space. Khrushchev had decided to decline, given that the Soviets did not wish to reveal the status of their rocketry, as well as their capabilities they would have in space.

On the 12th April 1961, the Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, had become the first person to fly in space, which would reinforce the American fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the Soviet Union. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was eager for the United States to take the lead in the Space Race for the reasons of strategy and prestige. He had first announced the goal of landing a man on the Moon in the speech to a Joint Session of Congress on the 25th May 1961, stating:

“First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft. We propose to develop alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain which is superior. We propose additional funds for other engine development and for unmanned explorations—explorations which are particularly important for one purpose which this nation will never overlook: the survival of the man who first makes this daring flight. But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon—if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.”

John Fitzgerald Kennedy had also made a speech at the Rice University on the 12th September 1962, to which he had said: “No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space. … We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.”

On the 21st November 1962, in a cabinet meeting with the NASA administrator, James E. Webb, and the other officials, John F Kennedy had explained that the Moon shot was important for the reasons of international prestige, and that the expense was justified. Lyndon Johnson had assured him that the lessons learned from the space program had the military value as well. The costs for the Apollo Program were expected to reach up to $40 billion.

In a September 1963 speech that came before the United Nations, John Fitzgerald Kennedy had urged the co-operation between the Soviets and Americans in space, by specifically recommending that Apollo should be switched to “a joint expedition to the moon”. Khrushchev had again chosen to decline, and the Soviets did not commit to a manned Moon mission until 1964. On the 20th July 1964, almost six years after JFK’s death, the Apollo 11 had landed the first manned spacecraft on the Moon.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s Assassination

The President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was assassinated in Dallas, Texas at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 PM Central Daylight Time in the United Kingdom) on Friday 22nd November 1963, while he was on a political trip to Texas to smooth over the frictions in the Democratic Party between the liberals, Ralph Yarborough, Don Yarborough (no relation) and the Conservative, John Connally. While he was travelling in a Presidential motorcase through downtown Dallas, Kennedy was shot once in the throat, and once in the head.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was taken to Parkland Hospital for emergency medical treatment, but was sadly pronounced dead at 1:00 PM CST (7:00 PM CDT in the UK). At the age of only 46, Kennedy had died younger than any other U.S. President known to date. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was an employee of the Texas School Book Depository from which the shots were suspected to have been fired, was arrested for the murder of a local police officer, and was also subsequently charged for the assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy.

He had denied shooting anyone, as he had claimed he was a patsy, but was subsequently killed by Jack Ruby on the 24th November 1963, before he could even be tried. Jack Ruby was then arrested and convicted for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald. He had successfully appealed his conviction and also his death sentence but had been taken ill and died from Cancer on the 3rd January 1967, while the date for his new trial was being set.

The President, Lyndon Johnson, had created the Warren Commission – chaired by the Chief Justice, Earl Warren – to investigate the assassination, which had concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin. The results of this investigation has been disputed by many, and the assassination had proved to be an important moment in U.S. history because of the impact Kennedy’s death had on the nation, as well as the ensuing political repercussions.

A Fox News Poll that took place in 2004 had found that 66% of the Americans had thought that there had been a conspiracy to kill the President, John F Kennedy, while 74% had thought that there had been a cover-up. A Gallup Poll that had taken place in mid-November 2013 had showed that 61% had believed in a conspiracy, and only 30% had thought that Lee Harvey Oswald had done it alone.

In 1979, the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations had concluded that it had believed: “that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The committee was unable to identify the other gunmen or the extent of the conspiracy.”

John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s Funeral

A Requiem Mass was held for John Fitzgerald Kennedy at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle on the 25th November 1963. Afterwards, John F Kennedy’s body was buried in a small plot that was 20 by 30 feet, in Arlington National Cemetery. Over a period of two or three years (1964-1966), an estimate of about 16 million people had visited JFK’s grave. On the 14th March 1967, John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s lifeless body was moved to a permanent burial plot and memorial at the cemetery. The funeral was then officiated by John J. Cavanaugh, and it was from this memorial onwards that the graves of both Bobby and Ted were modelled.

The honour guard that was at Kennedy’s graveside was the 37th Cadet Class of the Irish Army. John Fitzgerald was so greatly impressed by the Irish Cadets on his last, official visit to Ireland, so much so that Jackie Kennedy (a.k.a. Jacqueline Bouvier) had requested for the Irish Army to be the honour guard at her husband’s funeral.

Kennedy’s wife, Jacqueline, and their two deceased minor children were buried with him later on. His brother, the Senator, Robert Kennedy, was buried nearby in the June of 1968. In the August of 2009, his brother, the Senator, Edward M. Kennedy, was also buried near his two brothers. John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s grave is lit with an “Eternal Flame”, and JFK and William Howard Taft are the only two U.S. Presidents that have been buried at the Arlington National Cemetery. According to the JFK Library, the poem: “I Have a Rendezvous with Death”, which was written by Alan Seeger: “was one of John F. Kennedy’s favorite poems and he often asked his wife to recite it”.

After a lot of hard work and effort after a month, I can finally bring Case Study #6 to a remarkable close. Please note that the research may include a lot of quotes from Wikipedia that are unedited, and also, please note that this case study was an eye-sore to create, given just how hard it was to write it, due to the extensive amount of research that Wikipedia have got.

This is the largest Case Study that I’ve done, and this is the first Case Study to have more than 10,000+ words containing dozens of research about a Former President. Thanks so much for your patience everyone, I did initially hope to get this and the book done by the end of last month, but due to a long run of completing work for my course, as well as the revision I did ahead of the maths exam re-sit which I have only just recently completed, this resulted in difficult time management between doing this and my college studies, as well as revision. Please accept my sincere apologies for the delay, but now, it is finally here for all of you to view.